Choline is an organic compound, classified as a water-soluble essential nutrient and usually grouped within the Vitamin B complex. It is found in the lipids that make up cell membranes and in the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. How Much Choline D0 I Need? Adequate intakes (AI) for this micronutrient of between 425 to 550 milligrams daily, for adults, have been established by the Food and … [Read more...]


Biotin, also known as vitamin H or B7, is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin. Biotin is a cofactor in the metabolism of fatty acids and leucine, and in gluconeogenesis. It is necessary for cell growth, the production of fatty acids, and the metabolism of fats and amino acids. Biotin is also helpful in maintaining blood sugar levels within a healthy range and is often recommended for … [Read more...]

Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)

Riboflavin is a water-soluble B vitamin. Like the other B vitamins, it plays a key role in energy metabolism, and is required for the metabolism of fats, ketone bodies, carbohydrates, and proteins. … [Read more...]

Thiamine (Vitamin B1)

Thiamine (vitamin B1) helps the body cells convert carbohydrates into energy. It is also essential for the functioning of the heart, muscles, and nervous system. Vitamin B1 is found in asparagus, spinach, seeds, beans, peas and pork. … [Read more...]

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

Vitamin B3 is a water-soluble vitamin, also known as niacin. The term niacin refers to both nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, both of which are used by the body to form the coenzymes nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotine adenine dinucleotide phospate (NADP). The Roles of Niacin in the Body As many as 200 enzymes require the niacin coenzymes, NAD and NADP. NAD functions most often in … [Read more...]

Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, helps maintain healthy nerve cells and red blood cells, and is also needed to make DNA. Vitamin B12 is bound to the protein in food and is released by hydrochloric acid (HCl) in the stomach during digestion. Once released, B12 combines with a substance called intrinsic factor (IF) before it is absorbed into the bloodstream. Vitamin B12 is needed for normal … [Read more...]

Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin that exists in three major chemical forms: pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine. Vitamin B6 performs a wide variety of functions in the body. In fact, it is needed for more than 100 enzymes involved in protein metabolism and is essential for red blood cell metabolism. The nervous and immune systems need vitamin B6 to function efficiently, and it is also … [Read more...]

Vitamin C

Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin also known as ascorbic acid. Vitamin C is involved in collagen synthesis, wound healing, infection resistance, iron absorption, and is also an antioxidant. In the U.S., the recommended dietary allowance for vitamin C was recently revised upward from 60 mg daily for men and women. The RDA continues to be based primarily on the prevention of deficiency, … [Read more...]

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble pro-hormones, the two major forms of which are vitamin D2 (or ergocalciferol) and vitamin D3 (or cholecalciferol). Vitamin D performs a wide range of critical functions in the body including helping to maintain normal blood levels of calcium and phosphorus, aiding in the absorption of calcium from food, promoting bone mineralization, and reducing loss of … [Read more...]

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin that exists in eight different forms, each having its own biological activity. Alpha-tocopherol is the most active form in humans, and displays strong antioxidant activity. Vitamin E protects LDL cholesterol from oxidative damage and reduces risk of heart disease, has natural blood-thinning properties, and may block the formation of nitrosamines, which are … [Read more...]

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