amino acids


Gluten is an elastic protein found in wheat and other grains (including rye, oats and barley) that gives dough its structure and cohesiveness. Many people have a sensitivity to gluten, including those with Celiac disease. … [Read more...]


Methionine (abbreviated as Met or M)is an a-amino acid. It is an essential amino acid,meaning it cannot be made by the body. Methionine is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of cysteine, carnitine, taurine, lecithin, phosphatidylcholine, and other phospholipids. Improper conversion of methionine can lead to heart disease (see homocysteine). … [Read more...]


Avenin is a protein found in oats that may cause problems for those with a gluten intolerance, dermatitis herpetiformis or Celiac disease. … [Read more...]


Gliadin is a glycoprotein present in wheat and several other cereals within the grass genus Triticum. Gliadins are known for their role, along with glutenin, in the formation of gluten. People with gluten-sensitive enteropathy (the severe form of which is Celiac disease) are sensitive to a (alpha), ß (beta), and ? (gamma) gliadins. … [Read more...]


Casein, from the Latin word "caseus" or cheese, is the predominant phosphoprotein accounting for nearly 80% of proteins in milk and cheese. Casein has a molecular structure that is extremely similar to that of gluten. Therefore, most gluten-free diets are combined with casein-free diets and referred to as a gluten-free, casein-free diet. … [Read more...]


The word protein comes from the Greek word  ("prota"), meaning "of primary importance." Most lower life forms (microorganisms and plants) can synthesize all 20 standard amino acids. But humans (and animals) must obtain some of the amino acids from the diet. When we digest protein, it is broken down in into its constituent amino acids. Some amino acids are used for protein biosynthesis … [Read more...]


Collagen is the main protein of connective tissue in animals and the most abundant protein in mammals, making up about 25% of the whole-body protein content. Tough bundles of collagen called collagen fibers are a major component of the extracellular matrix that supports most tissues and gives cells from the outside. However, but collagen is also found inside certain cells. Collagen has great … [Read more...]


Tyrosine (abbreviated as Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, is one of the 20 amino acids. It is a non-essential amino acid and it is found in large quantities in casein. In fact, the word "tyrosine" is from the Greek tyros, meaning cheese, as it was first discovered in 1846 by German chemist Justus von Liebig in the protein casein from cheese. The thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and … [Read more...]


Valine (abbreviated as Val or V) is an a-amino acid named after the plant valerian. It is an essential amino acid, meaning it cannot be made by the body and must be obtained from food. Nutritional sources of valine include cottage cheese, fish, poultry, peanuts, sesame seeds, and lentils. … [Read more...]

Glutamic acid

Glutamic acid (abbreviated as Glu or E). It is not among the human essential amino acids. Glutamic acid is the single largest contributor to intestinal energy. As a source for umami, ninety-five percent of dietary glutamate is metabolized by intestinal cells in a first pass.  All meats, poultry, fish, eggs, as well as dairy products are excellent sources of glutamic acid. Some protein-rich … [Read more...]

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